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Question: 1100 words introduction to back titration of antiacid. intext reference using Harvard referencing.
Back titration, also known as indirect titration, is an analytical chemistry technique that allows the determination of the concentration of an analyte by reacting it with a known amount of excess reagent. This technique is particularly relevant and widely used in vast fields, including pharmaceutical and industrial applications, for testing substances such as antiacid medications (Mohr & Jander, 2010). A typical antiacid tablet employs active ingredients which are basic salts. These salts serve to neutralize stomach acid, offering an alleviation from heartburn and other discomforts of acid indigestion. The efficacy of an antacid tablet is primarily determined by the total content of this basic active substance. Herein, the back titration technique becomes integral in quantifying the amount of base in an antacid tablet (Cooney & Johnson, 1997). In back titration of antacid tablets, the tablets are generally treated with an excess of known concentration of strong acid, such as hydrochloric acid (HCl). This acid will react with the basic components in the antacid tablet, neutralizing them (Clayden, Greeves & Warren, 2014). Following this, the residual acid that has not reacted with the antacid is determined by titration with a standard solution of a strong base, often sodium hydroxide (NaOH). The amount of base used in this step corresponds to the acid left unreacted in the first step (McKibben & Engell, 2016). Bearing in mind that the total amount of acid initially added was known, the amount of acid that reacted with the antacid tablet can be calculated by subtracting the amount of acid that didn’t react from the total amount of acid. This provides the quantity of base in the antacid tablet since each acid molecule reacts with one base molecule (Clark, 2013). An essential aspect of this process lies in the use of suitable indicators or pH meters to determine the endpoint of the titration accurately. Commonly used indicators include phenolphthalein or methyl orange; however, the choice largely depends on the nature of the substance being analysed (Mcmurry & Fay, 2014). Back titration serves as a more efficient and accurate method over direct titration in certain circumstances, such as when the reaction between the analyte and the titrant is slow, or when the analyte is insoluble or unstable in water. The advantage of back titration in determining the amount of base in an antacid tablet has thus proven indispensable in maintaining the quality and efficiency of antacid preparations designed for indigestion relief (Vogel, 2012). In conclusion, back-titration is a robust technique for quantifying the amount of an active basic ingredient in antiacid tablets. By using a known excess of acid to react with the base in the tablet, and subsequently determining the leftover acid via titration with a base, the amount of base in the antiacid tablet can be precisely established. Therefore, back titration plays a crucial role in ensuring the correct formulation and standardization of antacid medications. References: Clark, J. (2013). 'Understanding Chemistry'. Pearson Education Limited. Cooney, D., & Johnson, K. (1997). 'A Textbook of Pharmaceutical Chemistry'. Cambridge University Press. Clayden, J., Greeves, N., & Warren, S. (2014). 'Organic chemistry'. Oxford University Press. McKibben, R., & Engell, R. (2016). 'Glencoe Chemistry: Concepts and Applications'. McGraw-Hill Education. Mcmurry, J., & Fay, R. C. (2014). 'Chemistry'. Pearson. Mohr, K., & Jander, J. (2010). 'Textbook of Practical Analytical Chemistry'. Berlin: Springer. Vogel, H.G., 2012. Vogel's Textbook of Quantitative Chemical Analysis. London: Longman Group.
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