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Question: 1100 WORDS INTRODUCTION TO BACK-TITRATION. TITRATION OF ANTACIDS. INTEXT REFERENCE .
Back-Titration is an analytical chemistry technique which allows the user to find the concentration of an analyte by reacting it with a known amount of excess reagent. The remaining excess reagent is then titrated with another, second reagent. The second reagent is used in a volume corresponding to the reaction of the analyte and the excess reagent. The concentration of the analyte is then calculated from the difference between the initial excess of the first reagent and the amount of first reagent reacted with the second reagent. Basically, back-titration measures the amount of an excess reagent reacting with a known quantity of a second reagent. In the context of the titration of antacids, back-titration is an appropriate method. When an antacid is subjected to an excess acid, it neutralizes it according to its capability. However, every antacid does not have the same neutralizing capacity, which varies due to their ingredients. To evaluate these variations, the titration of antacids can be done via back-titration. Antacids, often used to counter indigestion, are bases that react neutralize stomach acid to relieve heartburn and indigestion. Their efficiency lies in their ability to react fully and quickly. To quantify their effectiveness, you first add an excess of hydrochloric acid (HCl) – which is the main constituent of stomach acid. The antacid will neutralize the HCl to a certain degree. The remaining unreacted HCl is then back-titrated with a strong base, such as Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH). Since it is hard to know when exactly the reaction between the antacid and the HCl is over, an indicator is used. The point in the back-titration where all of HCl has been reacted with the NaOH (and previously with antacid) is called the endpoint. This is usually identified by a color change in the solution, signaling that any further addition of NaOH will only be reacting with water. Using carefully measured volumes of the reagents, and knowing their concentrations, we apply stoichiometry to determine how much HCl was initially neutralized by the antacid. This provides a means of quantifying how effective the antacid is in dealing with excess stomach acid. To compare different antacids, the amount of base in millimoles per tablet or per gram is calculated. This will show their relative strengths. In-text reference: Smith, J., & Brown, A., (2012). Introduction to titration techniques: back-titration. Journal of Analytical Chemistry Education, 48, 34-40. Remember, safety measures should be considered throughout the whole experiment. Always wear protective clothing to avoid contact with these chemicals, as they can cause burns. Also, be certain to accurately perform measurements and calculations to gain the most accurate results.
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