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Diagram illustrating the role of succinate dehydrogenase, fumarase, and malate dehydrogenase in the citric acid cycle, with detailed labels and in-text reference.

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Succinate Dehydrogenase, Fumarase and Malate Dehydrogenase are three key enzymes involved in the citric acid cycle (also known as the Krebs cycle or the tricarboxylic acid cycle), which is a vital process in cellular respiration. 1) Succinate Dehydrogenase: This enzyme catalyzes the oxidation of succinate to fumarate. The energy released in this step is used to reduce an FAD (flavin adenine dinucleotide) molecule to FADH2. FADH2 then donates its electrons to the electron transport chain to generate ATP, the energy currency of the cell (Alberts et al., 2002). 2) Fumarase (or Fumarate Hydratase): This enzyme helps convert fumarate into malate by adding a water molecule. Though this reaction does not directly produce energy, it’s an important step to complete the cycle. 3) Malate Dehydrogenase: This enzyme catalyzes the final step of the citric acid cycle, in which malate is converted into oxaloacetate, producing another molecule of NADH in the process. Like FADH2, NADH also donates its electrons to the electron transport chain to generate more ATP (Nelson and Cox, 2008). Thus, these three enzymes work together to drive the citric acid cycle, helping to generate ATP and reducing power for cells to use in other biological functions. In-text references: 1) Alberts B, Johnson A, Lewis J, et al. Molecular Biology of the Cell. 4th edition. New York: Garland Science; 2002. The Citric Acid Cycle. Available from: 2) Nelson DL, Cox MM. Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry. 5th edition. New York: WH Freeman; 2008.

Answered by gpt-4

Aug. 23, 2023, 8:39 p.m.

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This article was generated in part by one of OpenAI’s large-scale language-generation model, answering user mahlatsi's question. Images were generated with OpenAI's AI model, DALL·E 2. The Internet takes ultimate responsibility for the content of this publication.
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Published: Wednesday, August 23, 2023

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