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Question: With reference to biological and intellectual devwlopment,explain how early man exploit the environment for his/her survival during the stone age.
During the Stone Age, early human beings underwent significant biological and intellectual development, which enabled them to exploit their environment more effectively for survival. This period was marked by gradual improvements in their physical abilities, cognitive skills, and social interactions, all of which contributed to their success as hunters, gatherers, and eventually as producers of food and tools. The following are some ways in which early humans took advantage of their evolving traits to survive and thrive in the environment during the Stone Age: 1. Physical adaptations: Early humans developed bipedalism, or the ability to walk upright on two legs, which freed up their hands for other tasks, such as carrying tools, food, or their offspring. This physical adaptation made it easier for them to cover long distances and use their hands for various activities that contributed to their survival. 2. Tool-making abilities: As early humans developed more refined motor skills, they began creating and using tools to help them with various tasks. During the Stone Age, they made tools primarily from stone—hence the name—although they also used bone, wood, and other materials. These tools allowed them to hunt, cut, and process food more efficiently, as well as create shelter and defend themselves from predators and rival groups. 3. Mastery of fire: Early humans learned to harness the power of fire, which significantly improved their chances of survival. Fire provided warmth, protection, and the ability to cook food, which made it more digestible and unlocked important nutrients. The domestication of fire also facilitated socialization and the exchange of ideas, helping early humans develop more advanced cognitive skills. 4. Cognitive development: Early humans' intellectual development allowed them to devise innovative techniques for hunting, gathering, and exploiting their environment. They developed impressive problem-solving skills and honed their ability to learn from experience, ensuring more effective use of tools and avoiding dangers more successfully. 5. Language and communication: The ability to communicate verbally developed during the Stone Age and played a crucial role in early humans' survival. Language enabled them to share information, which was critical for their learning, cooperation, and the development of social bonds. The use of language also promoted the propagation of valuable knowledge across generations. 6. Social organization: As early humans developed more advanced intellectual skills, they began to form more complex social structures, including cooperative hunting and gathering parties, clans, and tribes. These social groups enabled them to share labor and resources, increasing their chances of survival in the harsh environments they faced. 7. Cultural development: Early humans developed various cultural practices, such as rituals, belief systems, and artistic expressions, which facilitated social cohesion and the transmission of knowledge. These cultural developments provided a framework for their societies, fostering cooperation, learning, and the intergenerational transmission of crucial survival skills. In conclusion, the Stone Age was a crucial period during which early humans adapted to and exploited their environment effectively for survival. Through their biological and intellectual development, these early populations acquired the tools, knowledge, and social structures that enabled them to thrive despite the challenges they faced. With these abilities, early humans laid the groundwork for the advanced civilizations that would eventually emerge.
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