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Question: Critically analyse the history of geodetic survey techniques and how they have shaped/evolved into modern day geodetic surveying. Include 3 references using APA7 referencing style.
Analyzing the history of geodetic surveying techniques, it becomes evident that this field has evolved significantly through time, shaped by necessities of accuracy, technological advancements, and application demand. The variation of the geodetic survey process from ancient to modern times has been a gradual transition that required extensive scientific improvements. Initially, geodetic surveys were carried out using simple tools like ropes, chains, rods, etc. (Allahyari, M., Fotouhi, M., & Reinschmidt, K. F. (2019). These tools were used to measure distances and angles - the basis of geodetic surveying - but the resultant accuracy was limited, and the process was tedious and time-consuming. The invention of instruments like theodolites and levelling instruments during the 16th century facilitated more accurate field measurements with less effort (Featherstone, W. & Filmer, M. 2012). For instance, Gunter's chain, an instrument invented in 1620, became the standard for land survey measurements in the English-speaking world. The 20th century marked significant technological advancements in geodetic survey techniques, with electronic distance meters (EDMs) representing an exceptional step forward (Hirvonen, R., 2010). EDMs allowed for longer distance measurements and simplified the process by eliminating the need for multiple surveyors. The development and implementation of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) like the GPS in the late 20th century revolutionized geodetic surveying, providing precise point positioning and navigation. Analyzing the progression, it's clear that the historical underpinnings of geodetic surveying have significantly influenced its modern form. Various technological advancements have enhanced data speed, precision, and volume. The history of geodetic surveying is hence a narrative of humanity's quest for precision and efficiency. References: - Allahyari, M., Fotouhi, M., & Reinschmidt, K. F. (2019). Historical Development of Geodetic Instruments. Journal of Surveying Engineering, 145(1). - Featherstone, W., & Filmer, M. (2012). The north-south tilt in the Australian Height Datum is explained by the ocean's mean dynamic topography. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 117(C8). - Hirvonen, R. (2010). Advances in Geodetic Surveying Techniques. Journal of Geodesy, 84(11), 699-710.
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