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Question: How did Africans resist colonial rule in southern Africa include references and citation
Africans in Southern Africa executed diverse strategies to resist colonial rule, including diplomacy, armed struggle, and non-violent resistance. Here is a closer look at these strategies: 1. Diplomacy: Many southern African leaders initially used diplomacy to resist colonial rule. Cetshwayo, the Zulu king, was among those who attempted to negotiate with the British but to no avail. Reference: Guy, Jeff. (1982). The Destruction of the Zulu Kingdom: The Civil War in Zululand, 1879–1884. University of Natal Press. 2. Armed Resistance: When diplomacy failed, many Africans in southern Africa resorted to armed resistance. Some of the well-known armed resistances include the Zulu wars against the British in 1879, and the First (1880-1881) and Second Anglo-Boer Wars (1899-1902) against British. Another example is the resistance of the Herero people against German colonisation in Namibia during the early 20th century. Reference: Martel, Gordon. (2001). The Boer War. John Wiley & Sons. 3. Non-violent Resistance: Many southern Africans also opted for non-violent means to resist colonial rule. This included creating independent churches, organising strikes, educational development, and forming political parties such as the African National Congress (ANC). One example of a significant non-violent protest was the Defiance Campaign of 1952. Reference: Lodge, Tom. (1983). Black Politics in South Africa Since 1945. Ravan Press. It's important to remember that African resistance to colonial rule was complex and took many forms over time. In-text citation: (Guy, 1982; Martel, 2001; Lodge, 1983)
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