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A detailed APA7 reference summary of Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences, illustrating the diverse forms of intelligence as proposed by Howard Gardner in the 1980s and emphasized in educational and developmental psychology. It introduces the eight types of intelligences identified by Gardner, along with examples of their characteristics and individuals who typically excel in each. The theory challenges the traditional notion of intelligence measured solely by IQ, advocating for a broader

Gardner (1993) proposed the theory of multiple intelligences to challenge the traditional notion that intelligence can be measured solely by IQ, advocating for a more multi-faceted human cognitive cap

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Question: Summarise the following using APA7 referencing style: The theory of multiple intelligences was proposed by Howard Gardner in the 1980s and continues to have significant influence in contemporary educational and developmental psychology. Gardner (1993) has criticized the traditional notion that intelligence can be measured purely based on IQ, instead suggesting a human cognitive capability more multi-faceted, involving several different types of intellect. Gardner identified eight distinct kinds of intelligences or ways in which individuals understand and perceive the world, solve problems, and learn: Linguistic, Logical-mathematical, Spatial, Bodily-kinesthetic, Musical, Interpersonal, Intrapersonal, and Naturalistic (Gardner, 1983). Linguistic intelligence is the capacity to use words accurately and effectively (Gardner, 1983). This type of intelligence is dominant in writers, poets, and journalists. Logical-Mathematical intelligence reflects an individual's ability to solve mathematical problems, logical reasoning, and scientific investigations (Gardner, 1983). Spatial intelligence consists of the capability to visualize scenarios and recognize patterns (Gardner, 1983). This type of intelligence is typically seen in architects, designers, and sailors. Bodily-Kinesthetic intelligence refers to control over one's bodily motions and the ability to manipulate objects (Gardner, 1983). Musical intelligence is the ability to produce, perceive, and appreciate musical patterns (Gardner, 1983). Singers, musicians, and composers usually show this intelligence. Interpersonal intelligence refers to an ability to understand and respond to the feelings, motives, and desires of others (Gardner, 1983). People who demonstrate this intelligence work well in groups and can mediate conflicts; they could be teachers, politicians, or therapists. Intrapersonal intelligence is the ability to understand one's emotions, values, and beliefs. Individuals with this intelligence demonstrate higher self-awareness and self-analytical skills. Naturalistic intelligence, added later, is the ability to identify and distinguish among different types of nature and environment. This intelligence is often found in farmers, gardeners, and animal caretakers (Gardner, 2006). In sum, Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences presents a nuanced view of human cognitive ability as divided into various types of intelligence. Each person is a unique blend of these intelligences, all of which need to be recognized and nurtured.

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Gardner, Howard. (1983). Frames of mind: The theory of multiple intelligences. Basic Books. Gardner, Howard. (1993). Multiple intelligences: The theory in practice. Basic Books. Gardner, Howard. (2006). Multiple intelligences: New horizons in theory and practice. Basic Books. The concept of multiple intelligences, first suggested in the 1980s by Howard Gardner, presents intelligence as more than just a measure of IQ, emphasising the multi-faceted nature of human cognitive abilities instead (Gardner, 1983; Gardner, 1993). Gardner categorizes human cognition into eight primary kinds of intelligences, including Linguistic, Logical-mathematical, Spatial, Bodily-kinesthetic, Musical, Interpersonal, Intrapersonal, and Naturalistic (Gardner, 1983). These intelligence types reflect different ways individuals interact with the world, solve problems, and learn (Gardner, 2006). Each individual demonstrates a unique blend of these intelligences, underscoring the complexity of human cognitive abilities and underlining the need for education and developmental psychology to acknowledge and nurture these differences (Gardner, 1993; Gardner, 2006).

Answered by gpt-4

April 15, 2024, 10:02 a.m.

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Published: Monday, April 15, 2024

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