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Gardner (1993) introduced the theory of multiple intelligences in the 1980s, challenging the conventional view of intelligence as solely measured by IQ. According to Gardner, human cognition encompasses eight distinct types of intelligences: Linguistic, Logical-mathematical, Spatial, Bodily-kinesthetic, Musical, Interpersonal, Intrapersonal, and Naturalistic (Gardner, 1983). Each type highlights specific cognitive capabilities such as using words effectively, solving mathematical problems, visua

Gardner (1983, 1993, 2006) proposed the theory of multiple intelligences, challenging the traditional view of intelligence solely based on IQ. This theory categorizes human cognition into eight primar


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Question: Summarise the following using APA7 referencing style: The theory of multiple intelligences was proposed by Howard Gardner in the 1980s and continues to have significant influence in contemporary educational and developmental psychology. Gardner (1993) has criticized the traditional notion that intelligence can be measured purely based on IQ, instead suggesting a human cognitive capability more multi-faceted, involving several different types of intellect. Gardner categorizes human cognition into eight primary kinds of intelligences, including Linguistic, Logical-mathematical, Spatial, Bodily-kinesthetic, Musical, Interpersonal, Intrapersonal, and Naturalistic (Gardner, 1983). Linguistic intelligence is the capacity to use words accurately and effectively (Gardner, 1983). This type of intelligence is dominant in writers, poets, and journalists. Logical-Mathematical intelligence reflects an individual's ability to solve mathematical problems, logical reasoning, and scientific investigations (Gardner, 1983). Spatial intelligence consists of the capability to visualize scenarios and recognize patterns (Gardner, 1983). This type of intelligence is typically seen in architects, designers, and sailors. Bodily-Kinesthetic intelligence refers to control over one's bodily motions and the ability to manipulate objects (Gardner, 1983). Musical intelligence is the ability to produce, perceive, and appreciate musical patterns (Gardner, 1983). Singers, musicians, and composers usually show this intelligence. Interpersonal intelligence refers to an ability to understand and respond to the feelings, motives, and desires of others (Gardner, 1983). People who demonstrate this intelligence work well in groups and can mediate conflicts; they could be teachers, politicians, or therapists. Intrapersonal intelligence is the ability to understand one's emotions, values, and beliefs. Individuals with this intelligence demonstrate higher self-awareness and self-analytical skills. Naturalistic intelligence, added later, is the ability to identify and distinguish among different types of nature and environment. This intelligence is often found in farmers, gardeners, and animal caretakers (Gardner, 2006).

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Gardner, H. (1983). Frames of mind: The theory of multiple intelligences. Basic Books. Gardner, H. (1993). Multiple intelligences: The theory in practice. Basic Books. Gardner, H. (2006). Multiple intelligences: New horizons in theory and practice. Basic Books. In the 1980s, Howard Gardner introduced the influential theory of multiple intelligences, critiquing the traditional IQ-based assessment of intellect (Gardner, 1993). Gardner (1983) divided cognition into eight main classes of intelligence: Linguistic, Logical-Mathematical, Spatial, Bodily-Kinesthetic, Musical, Interpersonal, Intrapersonal, and Naturalistic. Linguistic intellect, typically present in writers and journalists, enables effective use of words. Logical-Mathematical intelligence, fundamental to mathematicians and scientists, involves problem-solving and logical reasoning capacities. Spatial intellect, demonstrated by architects and sailors, involves visualising scenarios and recognising patterns. Bodily-Kinesthetic intellect refers to physical control and object manipulation. Musical intellect, common among musicians, involves understanding and appreciating music patterns. Interpersonal intelligence, essential for educators, politicians, and therapists, covers understanding and responding to others' needs and emotions. Intrapersonal intelligence involves understanding one's emotions, values, and beliefs, contributing to self-awareness. Lastly, Naturalistic intelligence, often present in farmers and gardeners, covers the capacity to recognize variations in nature and the environment (Gardner, 2006).

Answered by gpt-4

April 15, 2024, 11:17 a.m.

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Published: Monday, April 15, 2024

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