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Question: DISTINGUISH BETWEEN TYPE 1 DIABETES MELLITUS AND TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. ALSO EXPLAIN BLOOD SUGAR AND CHORESTEROL TESTING PROCEDURES AND NORMS
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus are two main forms of diabetes, which affect the way the body regulates blood sugar levels. Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: 1. Also known as insulin-dependent diabetes or juvenile diabetes. 2. It's an autoimmune disorder where the immune system attacks and destroys the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas, resulting in little or no insulin production. 3. Usually occurs in children, teenagers, and young adults but can develop at any age. 4. People with type 1 diabetes must take insulin injections or use an insulin pump, along with monitoring their blood sugar levels regularly. 5. No known prevention; it's likely caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: 1. Also known as non-insulin-dependent diabetes or adult-onset diabetes. 2. It's often associated with insulin resistance, where muscle, liver, and fat cells do not use insulin efficiently, leading to an increased demand for insulin, which the pancreas cannot produce in sufficient amounts. 3. Usually occurs in adults over 45 years old but is increasingly seen in younger people and children due to sedentary lifestyles and obesity. 4. May be managed through lifestyle changes (diet and exercise), oral medications, or insulin injections. 5. Can be prevented or delayed through a healthy lifestyle, including a balanced diet, regular exercise, and maintaining a healthy weight. Blood Sugar Testing Procedures and Norms: The main blood sugar testing methods are: 1. Blood Glucose Monitoring (Fingerstick test): This method involves pricking the side of the fingertip with a lancet and placing a drop of blood on a test strip, which is inserted into a blood glucose meter. The meter then measures and displays the glucose level. Norms (for non-diabetic individuals): - Fasting blood sugar (before eating): 70-99 mg/dL (3.9-5.5 mmol/L) - Postprandial blood sugar (2 hours after eating): <140 mg/dL (<7.8 mmol/L) 2. HbA1c Test: The Hemoglobin A1c test measures the average blood sugar levels over the past 2-3 months by evaluating the amount of glucose attached to hemoglobin in red blood cells. Norms (for non-diabetic individuals): - HbA1c level: < 5.7% Cholesterol Testing Procedures and Norms: A lipoprotein profile is a blood test that measures different types of cholesterol, such as Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL), High-Density Lipoprotein (HDL), and triglycerides. Blood is drawn after an overnight fast (9-12 hours) for accurate results. Norms (for adults): - Total cholesterol: <200 mg/dL (<5.2 mmol/L) - LDL cholesterol: <100 mg/dL (<2.6 mmol/L) - HDL cholesterol: >60 mg/dL (>1.6 mmol/L) - Triglycerides: <150 mg/dL (<1.7 mmol/L) Maintaining healthy blood sugar and cholesterol levels is essential to prevent complications related to diabetes and heart diseases. It is crucial to follow your healthcare provider's advice and guidelines for managing these conditions.
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