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Question: Describe any 3 types of transition metal clusters? Provide any two uses of transition clusters?
Types of Transition Metal Clusters: 1. Nuclearity Transition Metal Clusters: These clusters are classified based on the number of metals in the complex, such as mono-nuclear (one metal), di-nuclear (two metals), tri-nuclear (three metals), etc. For instance, Iron-Molybdenum cofactor (FeMoco) is a heteronuclear cluster with seven iron atoms and one molybdenum atom. 2. Homonuclear and Heteronuclear Transition Metal Clusters: Homonuclear clusters have the same type of metal atoms. For example, Iron-Sulfer [Fe4S4(SCH3)4]2- and Niobium [Nb6Cl12]2+ clusters. On the other hand, Heteronuclear clusters contain more than one type of metal atom. Examples include Iron-Molybdenum in nitrogenase and Fe-Cu center in cytochrome c oxidase. 3. Zerovalent Transition Metal Clusters: These clusters have metal atoms with zero oxidation state. Most of these clusters, such as platinum and palladium, exhibit unique characteristics. They are known for their catalytic properties due to the multi-fold bonding sites. Uses of Transition Clusters: 1. Catalysis: Transition metal clusters are widely used in catalysis because they possess multiple bonding sites. This allows the participating substrates to simultaneously interact with multiple metal atoms. An example of this is the use of platinum clusters in the catalytic converters of cars, where they help to speed up the reaction converting harmful gases into less damaging substances. 2. Medicine: Certain transition metal-based drugs like Cisplatin, which is a platinum complex, have been used in the treatment of various cancers. The interaction between transition metal cores and cellular components like DNA, proteins, and metabolites provide its anti-cancer activity. 3. Materials Science: Transition metal clusters are also being studied for use in new materials with potential applications in electronics due to their unique electronic properties.
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